Charles Read

Customizing-Your-VehicleIf you have a vehicle that you would like to customize, making it appear different, but not ridiculous, there are many things that you can do to trick out your car or truck. There are different trends that come and go, some returning years later, as if they were never gone. From huge rear spoilers to neon washer nozzles, these are ways that you can customize your car. Here are a few tips on what the latest trends are right now, allowing you to make your car the envy of your city or town without looking like the proverbial village idiot. Contacting companies like to make your car look its best, you can have a simple addition bike automotive tint that can easily be put on your side windows, even on your windshield.

Past Trends to Ignore

Before discussing what the latest trends in car customizing actually are today, let’s go over the ones that you need to avoid. Examples of this would be putting smoked headlights and taillights covers, something that was popular decades ago, but is now considered passé. You should also avoid anything with a chrome edge trim, specifically on gas caps, rain guards or even your trunk lid because they have fallen out of style. Custom grill packages are still very popular, but it really depends on the type of vehicle that you are modifying. There are a few popular customizing ideas that may never go out of style, and this is especially true for high-end vehicles, but can also be utilized on some regular cars.

Popular Customizing Ideas

Depending upon the type of vehicle that you have, there are many things that you can addCustomizedCar that will make your vehicle stand out and look great at the same time. For instance, if you have a race car that you take to the track on a regular basis, adding a custom roll cage on the top of your convertible sports vehicle is definitely in style right now. You can also do aero upgrades to make your car faster, put in aftermarket seats which are back in style now and even do ECU tuning which is the easiest way for anyone to increase throttle response, change the torque, or increase the redline without destroying your engine in the process.

Now that you have a better idea of what is in, and what customizing decisions that you should definitely ignore, you can decide on what is right for your vehicle. It’s all about knowing what is popular and acceptable, and what should never be done, when deciding on how to customize your car the right way.

Technology is evolving on a regular basis and this is something every is getting to notice from time to time. All aspects of life are changing because of technology. People are coming up with new inventions and it is a wonderful time to live. However, what are some of the latest gadgets coming out in the upcoming year? Which ones should you be on the look out for?  Service companies, like the Benchmark Cleaning had been using the latest eco friendly and high tech cleaning gadgets and materials as well. Here are a few of the best and most exciting gadgets, which are going to make waves as soon as they hit the open market.
Logitech Type-S
This is a high quality keyboard phone case, which is going to be the talk of the town. It is truly powerful and is something that looks sleek and works well.
Smart phones are powerful and are able to live up to the hype of average laptops. Therefore, why shouldn’t you just attach a keyboard to it and enjoy the power on offer? This solution is going to take care of that need.
Livescribe Echo Smartpen
Whenever you are taking notes, you are going to find moments, where it would have been easier to just record audio instead. This is certainly the case in college when you are quickly trying to take down what the professor is saying.
This smart pen is going to record the audio for you as you are writing. Taking notes has never been as easy as it is going to be in 2016.
Bluetooth speakers are all the range, but most of them are not weather-proof. They are not easy to put outside, so you become restricted.
This is not the case any longer with this solution. It is powerful and easy to use.
2016 is going to change the world with regards to bluetooth speakers and what they have to offer those who want to listen to audio on the go.
These are truly some of the most exciting options that are going to be on the market and will cause quite the fervor. Who doesn’t want to get their hands on some of these options. They are truly high quality options, which are going to make you smile from ear to ear. All walks of life are seeing such changes and it is time to join in.

hollywood beautyMany people turn to the stars to figure out what’s in or out when it comes to beauty. While it’s true that beauty is subjective, there are features you can show off that are sure to stun anyone now and in the future.

Rhinoplasty is a way to make your nose look different through a surgical procedure. If you have problems with how large, small, or, or the shape it is possible to deal with it this way. The great thing about consulting experienced Nose Surgeons like Becker Rhinoplasty Center, which comes highly recommended, is the fact that you are far more likely to achieve the look you want with professionals. Don’t go to some budget cosmetic surgeon that claims they are the best. Anyone worth their salt will charge a fair price, and will have sufficient training for the work.

Know that even stars that seemingly were beautiful naturally even employed makeup tricks. Greats like Marilyn Monroe wore layers of makeup to expand on their best features. You will have to do something no matter what you look like with your makeup if you wish to act or do anything related to where you are filmed, since natural skin just don’t record well for the most part in most lighting situations. The hues can be adjusted for your eye shadow and lipstick, and it’s easy to get help with this through a makeup artist if you don’t wish to learn about all the tips you need to utilize to do your best.

Remember to be wary of anything that claims you can do procedures to yourself. Any do-it-yourself technique to change your look that’s not changing up your makeup or clothing WTO-Audreyshould be left to a person that has the right amount of training. Otherwise you may find yourself having to clear up issues that you caused through these methods, which can begin to get expensive. The better the work you get done, the more realistic and long lasting it will be, which is why you should find the best help you can afford.

These Hollywood beauty tips are sure to help you look and feel your best, just as the famous people in the great USA. Anything that can be done to help you get more out of your natural beauty is easy to utilize. You now know of some easy procedures that can assist.

The correlation between one’s personality and one’s living area is fairly well known. What’s not always known is exactly how the correlation works. Is it that humans tend to set up their living space in such a way as to showcase their personality? Or is it that one’s living space slowly has an effect on their personality? It’s hard to say, but one thing is certain; having your bathroom looking great can have a huge impact on your day.

There are the basic things, of course. If the bathroom is clean and all your toiletries are laid out efficiently, you’ll be able to get ready for the day much more quickly and easily. If you have to spend several minutes fumbling around for your toothpaste and your hair gel, it can leave you a bit grumpy. But that’s not the only way the look of your bathroom can affect your personality.

It’s well known that bright, cheerful colors can make a person feel happier. For instance, the color red can make you feel more lively and energetic. That could be something you really want every morning, as it could be more effective than a cup of coffee! Meanwhile, the color blue can make a person feel calm and peaceful. If you find yourself often feel stressed after a long day at work, you could go into your bathroom, which could be painted with a number of blue hues, and that relaxing bath you plan to take could be even more relaxing!

San Diego Bathroom RemodelingThose aren’t the only colors that can have an effect on your mood, though. Every color has various effects, and if you’re being especially clever, you can mix and match the various colors in order to give yourself multiple boosts. Painting your bathroom in both blue and pink could well double the calm, peaceful feelings!  But wait, if you happen to be in San Diego like my aunt, there is the Cornerstone Bathroom Remodeling who is behind her good looking and elegant bathroom and way cheaper remodeling company around the area.

Ultimately, you should do some research and figure out what effects the various colors can have on your mood. Knowing what colors have what effect, you’ll be able to remodel your bathroom in such a way as to help give you the emotional boost you need. After all, you spend quite a bit of time in your bathroom, especially first thing in the morning and right before bed. Those are the two times when it’s most important to get off on the right foot. And having your bathroom looking bright and beautiful is the first step to doing that.

A business website is the face of an actual business enterprise on the World Wide Web. It has become quite necessary for small and medium businesses to have an online presence in order to tap into the huge potential that the internet provides. Pretty much everyone is looking for answers, information, products and services from the internet and so many business websites are there to provide all the above to internet users. It is very important to ensure that your business website is on point and can be easily associated with the brand you deal with.

With all the many existing websites on the internet today, it can be really hard to be seen and to have an audible voice that can be heard by millions of internet users. There are quite a number of factors that contribute to getting a website to the top where it gains worldwide recognition and a huge following of internet users. Because your website is a direct representation of your brand, you cannot afford to neglect it especially in this time and age when everything is being digitized. SO what can you do to get your business website to the top of the ranks and appearing on the very first pages of search engine results?

Optimize Your Website‘s Look

It is quite clear and obvious that any successful website or web page must appear good looking and aesthetically pleasing to all those who visit it. A stunning or really boring look can be the first impressions that consumers get about your brand and thus can be the make or break determinant.

The identity of your brand is basically the set of ideas and values that consumers associate with your business enterprise.

This is where your website needs to invest in really captivating and attractive web design layouts. The choice of web design layout must be done with a lot of consideration for your brand identity. The layout carries everything from background colors, fonts, images and even navigation panes. All these tiny factors must collectively signal your brand identity from a mile away.

The Content On Your Website

What you offer to the rest of the world really matters a lot. Having relevant, valuable and high quality information on your website is a must. There is no shortcut to this because internet users as well as search engine crawlers are really put off by low quality content on websites. Low quality content is anything that has a lot of keywords stuffed into it, has wrong or false information, is not relevant in any way to most internet users and is full of errors such as language and grammar mistakes.

It is very crucial that a business website provides up to date and high quality content in form of text and images. New and fresh content needs to be posted every now and then in order to show some activity in your business enterprise.

Finally, when your website is looking good and has the relevant content that is targeting a certain audience, the only thing that is left to do is to engage in effective Search engine Optimization, look for the best company, might help you, try to visit them and get your business website to the top.

Clinical research is a form of a trial conducted on human beings mostly using a specimen from patients with a particular disease in order to test if particular drugs on trial may work. Clinical research mainly deals with laboratory research on the causes of a specific disease. It may work to provide a prevention or a cure for an ailment.

Clinical research is meant to answer two questions; can the new treatment be used for treatment? And is it safe to use the new treatment? If the medicine works, the doctors examine how well it works compared to other drugs used to treat the condition.

If it is not any better as compared to other drugs available, the doctors assess if the new drug has fewer side effects or if it may work for those patients who cannot be treated by the drugs used to treat the disease.

If the new drug is not in any way better than the drug being used, then it does not qualify for any study. The doctors will also try to weigh the benefits with the potential risks. If the benefits of the drug are many than the risks, then the drug can be used for treatment.

The treatments and prevention of diseases would never happen without clinical research. With every drug used to treat any medical condition, there were thousands of people who took part in the research process.

Without this research, many people would die or become crippled from conditions that can nowadays be treated. Clinical research has led to new ways to treat illness, prevention methods and new drugs which can treat diseases.

Clinical research has made it compulsory for all doctors to use only tested medicines. Before clinical  research was incorporated into the health care system, doctors would choose medical treatments, according to their own knowledge of the condition.

The problem was that all doctors were not similar in their approaches and this meant that different drugs were prescribed by use of guesswork. Many doctors got it wrong and patients would acquire new diseases and would never recover from their original condition.

Some patients even died. Blood pressure pills, organ transplant, vaccines and chemotherapy would not be discovered without health research.

Medical research is done in order to know how modern treatments of treatment can be improved and made more effective and safe. After the testing of the current medical procedure and drugs available, medical devices like pacemakers and safer surgeries and new vaccines are the results of clinical research. That is why feels it is good to save lives and make medical procures and medicines better for all.

In most of the contested divorces, the spouses may not be able to come to an agreement on specific issues especially division of marital asset and the custody of the children. When this happens, the litigation process becomes protracted and may take longer before it can be concluded. If you are in this predicament, you should seek for help from divorce mediators like Liaise Divorce Solutions LLC I found online and heard of their satisfactory service if I may help you.

As a law firm, Liaise can do two things for you; act as a mediator between the couples or represent your interests in a court of law until the court delivers a final ruling.

When you contract to these mediators, they will follow a simple procedure to help arrive at solution to your problem. Among the things they will do include;

•    Organize for a meeting with you where the matter is discussed
•    Serve your spouse with a petition
•    Allow your spouse to respond to the petition / responding to a petition if you have been served with one.
•    Move to the discovery stage where more details are established
•    Settlement
•    Move to full trial
•    Post trial motion
•    Launch an appeal

Mediators/attorneys gather all the documents and the details pertaining to children, marital assets, or any other issue at hand.  After this, a divorce document will be prepared and filed in a court of law.

Once the petition is filed, they will serve your spouse using any of the recommended methods such as using a deputy sheriff and email. In a case where they cannot be able to locate your spouse, they shall have the same published in the newspaper and wait for the pre-determined amount of time to lapse before moving to the next stage.

However, if your spouse does not respond to the petition within 30 days, he or she may be in default meaning you will obtain a default judgment. However, if she responds, your case shall move to the discovery or settlement stage.

At the discovery stage, mediators shall strive to obtain more information about the marital assets, custody, income and any other relevant information related to the case in question. This can be done through written interrogatories, requests and depositions.  At this stage, the spouse may request for temporary orders for alimony or child support from the court.

As a reliable divorce mediator, they will encourage the wearing spouses to come to an agreement before the court makes its ruling. If the judge orders that mediation be done, we shall try to help to negotiate and have the issue settled out of court. However, if it does not work it will continue with the case.

At the trial, mediators shall organize your witnesses, assemble the evidence so that they can argue the case and allow the judge to hear the two sides before he can deliver the judgment. If the case is not complex, it may take a short period of time before the judgment is delivered. If mediators are not satisfied they shall appeal against the ruling and ensure that you obtain a favorable judgment.


by Charles Read on

Is Maryland a good place to visit? The answer to that question is YES. Maryland is a GREAT place to live in and visit. There are a lot of reasons why this state is one of the best states in the United States of America. Maryland may not be as famous as New York or California or Pennsylvania, but this state has its share of bests. From food, places and things, there is nothing not to love about Maryland.

If you visit Maryland and don’t have a place to stay, there are a lot of hotels that you can call home. Princess Royale Hotel has a nice spot if you want to explore Maryland’s beaches. They have the friendliest staff and extraordinary service. You can learn more about them by visiting their website from Maryland’s gorgeous beaches; this state is also home to the Ocean City Boardwalk, which is one of the best boardwalks in the US. This place is complete with various eateries to fill your tummy, nightlife and novelty shops for a one of a kind shopping experience.

ohioThere are other attractions you can go to aside from the Ocean City Boardwalk. There is the Deep Creek Lake Area, a man-made lake that is the largest inland body of water in the state. You can go fishing, hiking swimming and when the winter comes, this place becomes the perfect place for skiing and riding the snowmobile. You can relive the history by visiting Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Park. For people who love plants, flowers and trees, Brookside Garden is the place to be. This place is also home to different gardens like Butterfly, Japanese and Children’s. For a thrilling adventure, you must visit Six Flags America. The amusement park offers rides for thrill-seekers, kids and the whole family. If you are not wet enough from your visit at the beaches, Six Flags has a water park where you can get wetter and have more fun.

Your visit to Maryland is not complete if you don’t get to taste the best tasting crab you will eat in your lifetime. You read it right. The state is known for their sumptuous Blue Crabs which has been a part of its economy since 1800’s. Any way you serve it, these crabs are just delicious. Indulge in their Natty Boh beer that is originally brewed in Baltimore. There is something special about their snowballs that people line up just to have this summer essential.

Maryland is a sports enthusiast state; they support Lacrosse, Preakness Stakes, The Ravens, The Washington Redskins, Baltimore Orioles. Residents here also have their artistic side. They have homes on an entire street decorated to celebrate the Miracle on 34th St. Maryland is also the home of the famous Hairspray Musical, so “Good Morning Baltimore” and “Miss Baltimore Crabs” is quite known here by almost everyone. museum A variety of museums are waiting to be visited like The Visionary Art Museum, Edgar Allan Poe’s House and Geppi’s Entertainment Museum are some of them.

I can go on and on and on, but the bottom line of this post is to show you how great the state of Maryland is. It’s just as great as California, New York and Las Vegas respectively. Come and visit Maryland and experience the fun and excitement this state offers.


by Charles Read on

Craigslist is a classified advertisements website with sections devoted to jobs, housing, personals, for sale, services, community, gigs, résumés, and discussion forums.

Craig Newmark began the service in 1995 as an email distribution list of friends, featuring local events in the San Francisco Bay Area, before becoming a web-based service in 1996 and expanding into other classified categories. It started expanding to other U.S. cities in 2000, and currently covers 50 countries.


Having observed people helping one another in friendly, social, and trusting communal ways on the Internet via the WELL, MindVox and Usenet, and feeling isolated as a relative newcomer to San Francisco, Craigslist founder Craig Newmark decided to create something similar for local events. In early 1995, he began an email distribution list to friends. Most of the early postings were submitted by Newmark and were notices of social events of interest to software and Internet developers living and working in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Soon, word of mouth led to rapid growth. The number of subscribers and postings grew rapidly. There was no moderation and Newmark was surprised when people started using the mailing list for non-event postings.[citation needed] People trying to get technical positions filled found that the list was a good way to reach people with the skills they were looking for. This led to the addition of a category for “jobs”. User demand for more categories caused the list of categories to grow. The initial technology encountered some limits, so by June 1995 majordomo had been installed and the mailing list “Craigslist” resumed operations. Community members started asking for a web interface. Craig registered “”, and the web site went live in 1996.

By early 1998, Newmark still thought his career was as a software engineer (“hardcore java programmer”) and that Craigslist was a cool hobby that was getting him invited to the best parties for geeks and nerds.[citation needed] In the fall of 1998, the name “List Foundation” was introduced and Craigslist started transitioning to the use of this name. In April 1999, when Newmark learned of other organizations called “List Foundation”, the use of this name was dropped. Craigslist incorporated as a private for-profit company in 1999. Around the time of these events, Newmark realized that the site was growing so fast that he could stop working as a software engineer and work full-time running Craigslist. By April 2000, there were nine employees working out of Newmark’s apartment in San Francisco.

In January 2000, current CEO Jim Buckmaster joined the company as lead programmer and CTO. Buckmaster contributed the site’s multi-city architecture, search engine, discussion forums, flagging system, self-posting process, homepage design, personals categories, and best-of-Craigslist feature. He was promoted to CEO in November 2000.

The web site expanded into nine more U.S. cities in 2000, four in 2001 and 2002 each, and 14 in 2003. On August 1, 2004, Craigslist began charging $25 to post job openings on the New York and Los Angeles pages. On the same day, a new section called “Gigs” was added, where low-cost and unpaid jobs and internships can be posted free.

Expansion to more cities

The first 14 city sites were: (entire list)

March 1995: San Francisco Bay Area
June 2000: Boston
August 2000: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Portland, San Diego, Seattle, Washington, D.C.
October 2000: Sacramento
April 2001: Atlanta, Austin, Denver, Vancouver

Vancouver, British Columbia was the first non-U.S. city included. London was the first city outside of North America.

In November 2004, Amsterdam, Bangalore, Paris, São Paulo, and Tokyo became the first cities outside primarily English-speaking countries.

As of May 2008, 500 “cities” in 50 countries have Craigslist sites.Some Craigslist sites cover large regions instead of individual metropolitan areas—for example, the US states of Delaware and Wyoming, the Colorado Western Slope, the California Gold Country, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan are among the locations with their own Craigslist sites. As of 22 December 2011, there are 710 unique Craigslist sites that can be posted to.


The site serves over 20 billion page views per month, putting it in 37th place overall among web sites worldwide and 10th place overall among web sites in the United States (per on March 24, 2011), with over 49.4 million unique monthly visitors in the United States alone (per on January 8, 2010). With over 80 million new classified advertisements each month, Craigslist is the leading classifieds service in any medium. The site receives over 2 million new job listings each month, making it one of the top job boards in the world.[8][9] The 23 largest US Cities listed on the Craigslist home page collectively receive more than 300,000 postings per day just in the “for sale” and “housing” sections as of October, 2011.[10] The classified advertisements range from traditional buy/sell ads and community announcements to personal ads.

In 2009, Craigslist operated with a staff of 28 people

Financials and Ownership

In December 2006, at the UBS Global Media Conference in New York, Craigslist CEO Jim Buckmaster told Wall Street analysts that Craigslist has little interest in maximizing profit, instead it prefers to help users find cars, apartments, jobs, and dates.

Craigslist’s main source of revenue is paid job ads in select cities – $75 per ad for the San Francisco Bay Area; $25 per ad for New York City, Los Angeles, San Diego, Boston, Seattle, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Philadelphia, Orange County (California) and Portland, Oregon – and paid broker apartment listings in New York City ($10 per ad).

The company does not formally disclose financial or ownership information. Analysts and commentators have reported varying figures for its annual revenue, ranging from $10 million in 2004, $20 million in 2005, and $25 million in 2006 to possibly $150 million in 2007.

On August 13, 2004, Newmark announced on his blog that auction giant eBay had purchased a 25% stake in the company from a former principal. Some fans of Craigslist expressed concern that this development would affect the site’s longtime non-commercial nature, but it remains to be seen what ramifications the change will actually have. As of April 2012, there have been no substantive changes to the usefulness or non-advertising nature of the site—no banner ads, charges for a few services provided to businesses.

The company is believed to be owned principally by Newmark, Buckmaster, and eBay (the three board members). eBay owns approximately 25%, and Newmark is believed to own the largest stake.

In April 2008, eBay announced it was suing Craigslist to “safeguard its four-year financial investment.” eBay claimed that in January 2008, Craigslist executives took actions that “unfairly diluted eBay’s economic interest by more than 10%.” In response, Craigslist filed a counter-suit against eBay in May 2008 “to remedy the substantial and ongoing harm to fair competition” that Craigslist claims is constituted by eBay’s actions as Craigslist shareholders.

Site Characteristics

The site is notable for having undergone only minor design changes since its inception; even by 1996 standards, the design is very simple. Since 2001, the site design has remained virtually unchanged, and as of April 2010, Craigslist continues to avoid using images and uses only minimal CSS and JavaScript, a design philosophy common in the late 1990s but almost unheard of today for a major website.[citation needed]

Newmark says that Craigslist works because it gives people a voice, a sense of community trust and even intimacy. Other factors he cites are consistency of down-to-earth values, customer service and simplicity. Newmark was approached with an offer for running banner ads on Craigslist, but he decided to decline. In 2002, Craigslist staff posted mock-banner ads throughout the site as an April Fools’ Day joke.


In March 2008, Spanish, French, Italian, German, and Portuguese became the first non-English languages supported.


Craigslist has a user flagging system to quickly identify illegal and inappropriate postings. Classified ad flagging does not require account log in or registration, and can be made anonymously by any visitor. When a certain number of users flag a posting, it is removed. The number of flaggings required for a posting’s removal is variable and remains unknown to all but Items are flagged for three categories: misplaced, prohibited, or spam/overpost. Although users are given a short description of each flagging category, users ultimately flag on their preference, prejudice, or misunderstanding of the Craigslist Terms of Use. Flaggings can also occur as acts of disruptive vandalism and for the removal of competitors postings. To better understand and clarify flagging it is up to the users to define rules themselves in such places as the Unofficial Flagging FAQ and the flag help forum. The Flag Help Forum is an unmoderated volunteer community, it is not staffed by Craigslist employees, and it is not affiliated with The forum volunteers have no access to information about user accounts or ads, and must rely upon information supplied by the ad poster to try and piece together the reason an ad was flagged and removed. The Flag Help Forum’s unmoderated format allows anyone to post anonymously and without accountability. The forum’s usefulness and effectiveness can be compromised by people who post malicious replies to help threads.


Over the years Craigslist has become a very popular online destination for arranging for dates, and sex. The personals section allows for postings that are for “strictly platonic”, “dating/romance”, and “casual encounters”.

The site has been found to be particularly appealing to help connect lesbians, and gay men with one another because of its free and open nature in addition to it being hard to find gay people in one’s area for some.

In 2005, San Francisco Craigslist’s men seeking men section was attributed to facilitating sexual encounters and was the second most common correlation to syphilis infections. The company has been pressured by San Francisco Department of Public Health officials leading Jim Buckmaster to state that the site has a very small staff and that the public must police themselves. They have however added links to San Francisco City Clinic and STD forums.

Adult services controversies and closure

Advertisements for “adult” (previously “erotic”) services were initially given special treatment, then closed entirely on September 4, 2010, following a controversy over claims by state attorneys general that the advertisements promoted prostitution.

In 2002, a disclaimer was put on the “men seeking men”, “casual encounters”, “erotic services”, and “rants and raves” boards to ensure that those who clicked on these sections were over the age of 18, but no disclaimer was put on the “men seeking women”, “women seeking men” or “women seeking women” boards. As a response to charges of discrimination and negative stereotyping, Buckmaster explained that the company’s policy is a response to user feedback requesting the warning on the more sexually explicit sections, including “men seeking men.”[38] Today, all of the above listed boards (as well as some others) have a disclaimer.

On May 13, 2009, Craigslist announced that it would close the erotic services section, replacing it with an adult services section to be reviewed by Craigslist employees. This decision came after allegations by several U.S. states that the erotic services ads were being used for prostitution.[39] Postings to the new category cost $10 and could be renewed for $5.

On September 4, 2010, Craigslist closed the adult services section of its website in the United States. The site initially replaced the adult services page link with the word “censored” in white-on-black text. The site received criticism and complaints from attorneys general that the section’s ads were facilitating prostitution and child sex trafficking.

The adult services section link was still active in countries outside of the U.S.[40] Matt Zimmerman, senior staff attorney for the Electronic Frontier Foundation, said, “Craigslist isn’t legally culpable for these posts, but the public pressure has increased and Craigslist is a small company.” Brian Carver, attorney and assistant professor at UC Berkeley, said that legal threats could have a chilling effect on online expression. “If you impose liability on Craigslist, YouTube and Facebook for anything their users do, then they’re not going to take chances. It would likely result in the takedown of what might otherwise be perfectly legitimate free expression.”

On September 8, 2010, the “censored” label and its dead link to adult services were completely removed.

Craigslist announced on September 15, 2010, that it had closed its adult services in the United States for good. However, it defended its right to carry such ads and its efforts to fight prostitution and sex trafficking. Free speech and some sex crime victim advocates criticized the removal of the section, saying that it threatened free speech and that it diminished law enforcement’s ability to track criminals. However, the removal was applauded by many state attorneys general and some other groups fighting sex crimes. Craigslist said that there is some indication that those who posted ads in the adult services section are posting elsewhere. Sex ads cost $10 initially and it was estimated they would have brought in $44 million this year had they continued.[44][45] In the four months following the closure, monthly revenue from sex ads on six other sites (primarily increased from $2.1 to $3.1 million, partly due to price increases.

On December 19, 2010, after pressure from Ottawa and several provinces, Craigslist closed ‘Erotic Services’ and ‘Adult Gigs’ from its Canadian website.


In July 2005, the San Francisco Chronicle criticized Craigslist for allowing ads from dog breeders, and thereby allegedly encouraging the over breeding and irresponsible selling of pit bulls in the Bay Area.

In January 2006, the San Francisco Bay Guardian published an editorial criticizing Craigslist for moving into local communities and “threatening to eviscerate” local alternative newspapers. Craigslist has been compared to Wal-Mart, a multinational corporation that some feel crushes small local businesses when they move into towns and offer a huge assortment of goods at lower prices.

Nonprofit foundation

In 2001, the company started the Craigslist Foundation, a § 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that offers free and low cost events and online resources to promote community building at all levels. It accepts charitable donations, and rather than directly funding organizations, it produces “face-to-face events and offers online resources to help grassroots organizations get off the ground and contribute real value to the community”.

Since 2004, the Craigslist Foundation has hosted an annual conference called Boot Camp, an in-person event that focuses on skills for connecting, motivating and inspiring greater community involvement and impact. Boot Camp has drawn more than 10,000 people since its inception.[citation needed] The latest Boot Camp event was held on Saturday, August 14, 2010.

The Craigslist Foundation is also the fiscal sponsor for Our Good Works, the organization that manages, an application that distributes volunteer opportunities across the web and helps people get involved in their communities.

Related Media

In 2003, Michael Ferris Gibson filmed the documentary 24 Hours on Craigslist.

In November 2007, Ryan J. Davis directed Jeffery Self’s solo show My Life on the Craigslist at Off-Broadway’s New World Stages. The show focuses on a young man’s sexual experiences on Craigslist and was so successful that it returned to New York by popular demand in February 2008.

Nerdcore hip-hop musician Schäffer the Darklord recorded a song called “Craig’s List” for his 2007 album, Mark of the Beast.

On June 16, 2009, “Weird Al” Yankovic released a song titled “Craigslist”, which is a parody of the website, done in the style of The Doors.

On January 3, 2011, a movie named The Craigslist Killer premiered on Lifetime featuring the story of Philip Markoff, who was accused of robbing and/or murdering several sex workers he met through Craigslist’s adult services section.

The premise of the sitcom New Girl centers around a girl (Zooey Deschanel) who looks on Craigslist to find new roommates. She misunderstands one of the listings and ends up moving in with three men, when she had intended to find female roommates.

The American comedy series Bored to Death revolve around a fictional Jonathan Ames (played by Jason Schwartzman) who posts an ad on Craigslist advertising himself as an unlicensed private detective.


by Charles Read on

Facebook is a social networking service and website launched in February 2004, owned and operated by Facebook, Inc. As of May 2012, Facebook has over 900 million active users, more than half of them using Facebook on a mobile device. Users must register before using the site, after which they may create a personal profile, add other users as friends, and exchange messages, including automatic notifications when they update their profile. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups, organized by workplace, school or college, or other characteristics, and categorize their friends into lists such as “People From Work” or “Close Friends”. The name of the service stems from the colloquial name for the book given to students at the start of the academic year by some university administrations in the United States to help students get to know each other. Facebook allows any users who declare themselves to be at least 13 years old to become registered users of the site.
Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow students Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. The website’s membership was initially limited by the founders to Harvard students, but was expanded to other colleges in the Boston area, the Ivy League, and Stanford University. It gradually added support for students at various other universities before opening to high school students, and eventually to anyone aged 13 and over. However, according to a May 2011 Consumer Reports survey, there are 7.5 million children under 13 with accounts and 5 million under 10, violating the site’s terms of service.
A January 2009 study ranked Facebook as the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users. Entertainment Weekly included the site on its end-of-the-decade “best-of” list, saying, “How on earth did we stalk our exes, remember our co-workers’ birthdays, bug our friends, and play a rousing game of Scrabulous before Facebook?” Critics, such as Facebook Detox, state that Facebook has turned into a national obsession that results in vast amounts of time lost and innately encourages narcissism. Quantcast estimates Facebook has 138.9 million monthly unique U.S. visitors in May 2011. According to Social Media Today, in April 2010 an estimated 41.6% of the U.S. population had a Facebook account. Nevertheless, Facebook’s market growth started to stall in some regions, with the site losing 7 million active users in the United States and Canada in May 2011.



Mark Zuckerberg wrote Facemash, the predecessor to Facebook, on October 28, 2003, while attending Harvard as a sophomore. According to The Harvard Crimson, the site was comparable to Hot or Not, and “used photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the ‘hotter’ person”
To accomplish this, Zuckerberg hacked into the protected areas of Harvard’s computer network and copied the houses’ private dormitory ID images. Harvard at that time did not have a student “facebook” (a directory with photos and basic information), though individual houses had been issuing their own paper facebooks since the mid-1980s. Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours online.
The site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days later by the Harvard administration. Zuckerberg was charged by the administration with breach of security, violating copyrights, and violating individual privacy, and faced expulsion. Ultimately, the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this initial project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final, by uploading 500 Augustan images to a website, with one image per page along with a comment section. He opened the site up to his classmates, and people started sharing their notes.
The following semester, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website in January 2004. He was inspired, he said, by an editorial in The Harvard Crimson about the Facemash incident. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched “Thefacebook”, originally located at
Six days after the site launched, three Harvard seniors, Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra, accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing he would help them build a social network called, while he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. The three complained to the Harvard Crimson, and the newspaper began an investigation. The three later filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, subsequently settling.
Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College, and within the first month, more than half the undergraduate population at Harvard was registered on the service.[22] Eduardo Saverin (business aspects), Dustin Moskovitz (programmer), Andrew McCollum (graphic artist), and Chris Hughes soon joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Stanford, Columbia, and Yale. It soon opened to the other Ivy League schools, Boston University, New York University, MIT, and gradually most universities in Canada and the United States.
Facebook was incorporated in mid-2004, and the entrepreneur Sean Parker, who had been informally advising Zuckerberg, became the company’s president. In June 2004, Facebook moved its base of operations to Palo Alto, California. It received its first investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. The company dropped The from its name after purchasing the domain name in 2005 for $200,000.
Facebook launched a high-school version in September 2005, which Zuckerberg called the next logical step. At that time, high-school networks required an invitation to join. Facebook later expanded membership eligibility to employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. Facebook was then opened on September 26, 2006, to everyone of age 13 and older with a valid email address.
On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million, giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion. Microsoft’s purchase included rights to place international ads on Facebook. In October 2008, Facebook announced that it would set up its international headquarters in Dublin, Ireland. In September 2009, Facebook said that it had turned cash-flow positive for the first time. In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc., an exchange for shares of privately held companies, Facebook’s value was $41 billion (slightly surpassing eBay’s) and it became the third largest U.S. Web company after Google and Amazon.
Traffic to Facebook increased steadily after 2009. More people visited Facebook than Google for the week ending March 13, 2010.
In March 2011 it was reported that Facebook removes approximately 20,000 profiles from the site every day for various infractions, including spam, inappropriate content and underage use, as part of its efforts to boost cyber security.
In early 2011, Facebook announced plans to move to its new headquarters, the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park, California.
Release of statistics by DoubleClick showed that Facebook reached one trillion pageviews in the month of June 2011, making it the most visited website in the world. It should however be noted that Google and some of its selected websites are not counted in the DoubleClick rankings. According to the Nielsen Media Research study, released in December 2011, Facebook is the second most accessed website in the US.
In March 2012 Facebook announced App Center, an online mobile store which sells applications that connect to Facebook. The store will be available to iPhone, Android and mobile web users. In April, Facebook bought the application Instagram for US$1 billion.
In early May of 2012, Facebook acquired social discovery start-up Glancee.
Facebook, Inc. held an initial public offering on May 17, 2012, negotiating a share price of $38 apiece, valuing the company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.


User Profile

Users can create profiles with photos, lists of personal interests, contact information, and other personal information. Users can communicate with friends and other users through private or public messages and a chat feature. They can also create and join interest groups and “like pages” (called “fan pages” until April 19, 2010), some of which are maintained by organizations as a means of advertising. A 2012 Pew Internet and American Life study identified that between 20–30% of Facebook users are “power users” who frequently link, poke, post and tag themselves and others.

Privacy Setting
To allay concerns about privacy, Facebook enables users to choose their own privacy settings and choose who can see specific parts of their profile. The website is free to users, and generates revenue from advertising, such as banner ads. Facebook requires a user’s name and profile picture (if applicable) to be accessible by everyone. Users can control who sees other information they have shared, as well as who can find them in searches, through their privacy settings.

Comparison with Myspace
The media often compares Facebook to MySpace, but one significant difference between the two Web sites is the level of customization. Another difference is Facebook’s requirement that users give their true identity, a demand that MySpace does not make. MySpace allows users to decorate their profiles using HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), while Facebook allows only plain text. Facebook has a number of features with which users may interact. They include the Wall, a space on every user’s profile page that allows friends to post messages for the user to see; Pokes, which allows users to send a virtual “poke” to each other (a notification then tells a user that they have been poked); Photos, where users can upload albums and photos; and Status, which allows users to inform their friends of their whereabouts and actions. Depending on privacy settings, anyone who can see a user’s profile can also view that user’s Wall. In July 2007, Facebook began allowing users to post attachments to the Wall, whereas the Wall was previously limited to textual content only.